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Overview of Chronic Disease and Low Grade Inflammation

  • low-grade inflammation is an immune system response.  
  • body detects injurious stimuli, there can be a neuroendocrine response such as fever, a blood response, and a metabolic response. Initially, the innate (instinctive) immune system responds. White blood cells as well as cytokines work together to fight against the injury. 
  • Interleukins and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are important substances that assist in a wide variety of inflammatory reactions. The release of these substances leads to the production of acute phase reactants like fibrinogen, sialic acid, and C-reactive protein. If the injurious stimuli persist, many acute phase reactant levels remain elevated. 
  • The inflammatory process in the endothelial lining of blood vessels as well as adipose tissue (fat) and skeletal muscle are of particular interest.
  • Clinically, low-grade inflammation is defined as a two to four-fold elevation in circulating levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines

6 September 2017 

Anti-inflammatory cuts risk of heart attack

Jennifer Couzin-Frankel

  • clinical trial of more than 10,000 heart attack patients reported today supports a novel way to protect them from a stroke or a second attack: with drugs that stop inflammation.
  •  approach has been advanced by some scientists for years, but this is the first trial to conclusively show that it works. Cardiologists hailed it as vindication for the heart attack–inflammation link, which hadn’t been proved in people.

 

10 September 2017 

Inflammation: A unifying theory of disease

Harvard Health Letter, Published: April, 2006

  • Research is showing that chronic inflammation may be the common factor in many diseases.
  • Although there may never be such a single path, mounting evidence suggests inflammation as the common underlying cause of major degenerative diseases. The four horsemen of the medical apocalypse — coronary artery disease, diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's.